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高中科學菁英班實驗計畫之省思

潘裕豐
國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系副教授

近聞教育部選定國內在六所高中規劃成立六班「四年制科學菁英班」稱之為「高中四年制科學菁英班實驗計畫」,每校招收 25名學生,對象學生為當年國二生國三的學生,參與甄選的學生的條件必須包括在校成績前百分之二,國際奧林匹亞競賽進入決選,以及全國科展前三名等,以因應科學性向極為優異的資優生學習的需求,培養學生成為真正的做學問的科學人才,這已引起了許多的關注與討論。基本上,這是一個教育的新思維,值得一試。但是也應該審慎設計其配套措施。

個人以為這個科學菁英實驗計畫認為經過嚴格方式篩選的菁英學生,其科學能力是一致的,因此以四年來完成高中和大學一二年級階段的課程。然而,資優學生絕對不是同質性的團體,但是這個設計確有將資優學生同質化現象的思維。在常態分配的情況下極端的兒童(身心障礙和資賦優異兒童)其各別內和個別間的差異都是超呼常人的。即便是現在的資優班學生也是如此,更何況這個實驗計畫的學生更是資優中的菁英,其間的不同質性更高。好像從來就只有讓學生依照自己的能力決定是否跳級,也沒有說由制度來決定他一定要升級。所以課程設計與應該審慎考慮教學與學制的彈性並且設計適合學生的適性教育與區分性課程。

醫學之父西波克拉提斯曾說「 First do not harm」,醫生在從事醫病時首先是不造成傷害,若是醫病而造成傷害則不足以作為一個醫生。同樣地,教育安置制度的設計也應首先考慮「不造成傷害」,如果說一般教育是普通班火車,那這個科學菁英班則是自強號火車,以「異於正常」的方式行駛,就必須考慮到在此班級學生可能會造成的傷害為何?如果這150名學生當中會有人,即使是一人,因為這個制度而造成傷害(如各種可能的學習或心理適應不良),除非有一個良好的「下車機制」讓學生有一個適當的輔導與安置,否則個人都覺得不宜實施,畢竟這些學生都是「菁英」的人才。

再則過去擔任資優班的老師們都是學校的專科明星級老師,但是相對的,對於資優學生的人格及心理特質之認識與瞭解相對薄弱,使得在面對資優學生的心理與輔導問題時常常顯得心有未待之感。因此師資培訓和一個專業與教育心理的資優教育團隊是有其必要性。以培養教師在面對這群科學菁英學生的心理與輔導的能力。

縮短修業年限,從內容看來,此等實驗班級同時具有加速(縮短修業年限)與充實兩種模式,然而智能發展的優異並不意味著身體和情緒是同步發展的,時常有十二歲的頭腦,住有一個十歲的身體和十歲的情緒智能的人。值此人生青春年華的菁英學生們,如何去完成他們學業以外的自我、人際之人生任務,也應思考這問題的因應之道。

吾人喜於看到資優教育的發展,但是並不希望這種發展又回到過去「超級升學班」印象,科學菁英班的真實目的是培養一個真正做學問的人才,而非應付考試的高手。資優也不是天才,天才是一種成就,而資優只是一種特質,資優不意味成功,只是具有較佳潛能。要麻不做,要做就做最好的。我想教育部應該好好思考這個科學菁英實驗計畫的配套措施與經營策略。

 

 

 
教授部落格 : EFLY © 2006